India has been a great nation since centuries. In fact, science and technology in ancient India was highly advanced. India has remarkable achievements to its credit in the field of mathematics, biology, astronomy, physics, chemistry, fine arts surgery and other domains of science. We have curated a list of 11 facts pertaining to science and technology that prove our country held expertise in them since time immemorial –
- Sushruta and plastic surgery
Sushruta is one of the earliest surgeons in the history (600 BC) and is believed to do complex brain surgeries as well as plastic surgeries among others. He wrote a book called Sushruta Samhita during 6th century with details about 1,120 illnesses and 700 medicinal plants.
- Rig Veda and astronomy
Rig Veda is an ancient text that has a reference of astronomy and other explanations pertaining to it. Although Copernicus is credited for proposing the heliocentric model of solar system yet its reference can be clearly found in Rig Veda.
- Fibonacci numbers
The Fibonacci numbers were first explained by Indian mathematicians Virahanka, Gopala and Hemachandra as a contribution in the earlier writings by Pingala.
- Sports and games
The ancient India is the birthplace of some brilliant sports and games like chess, snakes and ladders, ludo and playing cards. Chess was invented way back in Gupta empire in India and was played as the clever game of board.
- Quadratic equations and decimal system
Brahmagupta found the first general formula to solve the quadratic equations back in 7th century BC. The decimal system was also developed in India between 1st and 6th centuries Common Era.
- Binary code
Binary number system was first described by Pingala, the author of Chandahsastra. It was mentioned in this earliest known Sanskrit account on meters.
Ancient Indian pioneered the science of metallurgy and used to produce high-quality steel almost two thousand years ago. A seamless celestial globe was invented in Kashmir as a remarkable feat in metallurgy which was earlier considered impossible.
- Speed of light
As per the statement by a vedic scholar from the 14th century named Sayana, “I bow down to the sun who travels 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha’, it is clear that he calculated the speed of light close to the scientifically calculated one. A yojana is 9 miles and a nimesha is 16/75 of a second, that comes to be 2,99,000 kilometers per second. That’s; shockingly close to the actual speed of light which is 3,00,000 kilometers per second.
Ancient Indians held expertise in the smelting technology, distillation of perfumes, extraction of metals, dyes, polishing and mining. A remarkable example is the rust-proof iron pillar of Qutab Minar, created in 500 AD.
- Value of Pi
The Indian scholar and great mathematician, Aryabhatta calculated the value of Pi exactly some centuries ago at a mere age of 23.
- Vedic Maths
The ancient mathematicians developed formulas and tricks to even solve complex mathematical problems. Aryabhatta and Bhaskarcharya contributed immensely to develop strong mathematical base with numerous geometrical theories.